Bernard passed into Germany, and the miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. Vol. You want me to tell you why and … The Cistercians honour him as only the founders of orders are honoured, because of the wonderful and widespread activity which he gave to the Order of Cîteaux. He turned away from his literary education, begun at the school at Châtillon-sur-Seine, and from ecclesiastical advancement, toward a life of renunciation and solitude. Bernard was born at Fontaines (20 m. n.e. It is How St Benedict Changed the World. He could also commune with nature and say: Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. Bernard of Clairvaux is a living illustration of a turbulent phase in Western Christendom. Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Consideration". It was here that his first writings evolved. -- Bernard of Clairvaux . Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. "De Officiis Episcoporum", addressed to Henry. St. Bernard explained in eighty-six sermons only the first two chapters of the. Nihil Obstat. . St. Stephen had just succeeded him (1113) as third Abbot of Cîteaux, when Bernard with thirty young noblemen of Burgundy, sought admission into the order. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sens, and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris. Transcription. . This article was transcribed for New Advent by Janet Grayson. Believing himself at last secure in his cloister Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of those pious and learned works which have won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". Alarming news came at this time from the East. In the refectory only a few common fishes were found for the pope, and instead of wine, the juice of herbs was served for drink, says an annalist of Cîteaux. In the first part he proves himself innocent of the invectives against Cluny, which had been attributed to him, and in the second he gives his reasons for his attack upon averred abuses. Faith and morals were taken seriously, but without priggishness. The works of St. Bernard are as follows: "De Gradibus Superbiae", his first treatise; "Homilies on the Gospel 'Missus est'" (1120); "Apology to William of St. Thierry" against the claims of the monks of Cluny; "On the Conversion of Clerics", a book addressed to the young ecclesiastics of Paris (1122); "De Laudibus Novae Militiae", addressed to Hughes de Payns, first Grand Master and Prior of Jerusalem (1129). St. Malachi would gladly have taken the Cistercian habit, but the sovereign pontiff would not give his permission. William yielded and the schism ended. WHY WE SHOULD LOVE GOD AND THE MEASURE OF THAT LOVE. The whole pontifical court was touched by the saintly demeanor of this band of monks. Bernard sought the counsel of the abbot of Cîteaux, St. Stephen Harding, and decided to enter this struggling small new community that had been established by St. Robert of Molesme in 1098 as an effort to restore Benedictinism to a more primitive and austere pattern of life. During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, who saw in him the predestined man, servum Dei. He could be irascible and domineering at times, but seems to have been generally venerated and well liked by those around him. . In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Woman of the century! Overview of St. Bernard of Clairvaux's life. of Dijon), France, 1090; d. at Clairvaux (in the valley of the Aube, 120 m. s.e. Associate Professor of Education, University of Windsor, Ontario. In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to this celebrated abbey--an action which gave rise to a quarrel between the "White Monks" and the "Black Monks" which lasted twenty years. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) was born in Burgundy and became one of the leading religious figures of his time. Temporal matters are merely accessories; the principal are piety, meditation, or consideration, which ought to precede action. Edessa had fallen into the hands of the Turks, and Jerusalem and Antioch were threatened with similar disaster. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on the 14th of February, 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Innocent II and Anacletus II. Under pressure from his ecclesiastical superiors and his friends, notably the bishop and scholar William of Champeaux, he retired to a hut near the monastery and to the discipline of a quack physician. In 1137 he was again forced to leave his solitude by order of the pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothaire and Roger of Sicily. 1907. He protests his profound esteem for the Benedictines of Cluny whom he declares he loves equally as well as the other religious orders. At the moment of the Communion, placing the Sacred Host upon the paten, he went to the door of the church where William was, and pointing to the Host, he adjured the Duke not to despise God as he did His servants. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. Towards the close of the eleventh century, the schools of philosophy and theology, dominated by the passion for discussion and a spirit of independence which had introduced itself into political and religious questions, became a veritable public arena, with no other motive than that of ambition. St. Bernard of Clairvaux did a lot for the Church, and he was named a Doctor of the Church. #Religious #Religious Love #Loving God “We find rest in those we love, and we provide a resting place in ourselves for those who love us.”-- Bernard of Clairvaux … On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on the 14th of February, 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Innocent II and Anacletus II. After the council, the Bishop of Verdun was deposed. His success in his studies won the admiration of his masters, and his growth in virtue was no less marked. In 1118, the Monastery of the Three Fountains was founded in the Diocese of Châlons; in 1119, that of Fontenay in the Diocese of Auton (now Dijon) and in 1121, that of Foigny, near Vervins, in the Diocese of Laon (now Soissons), Notwithstanding this prosperity, the Abbot of Clairvaux had his trials. Bernard sent him, at his own request, various instructions which compose the "Book of Consideration", the predominating idea of which is that the reformation of the Church ought to commence with the sanctity of the head. "Now illustrious Harmeric", he added, "if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? Bernard of Clairvaux was born into a noble family in Dijon, France in 1090. In the year 1119, Bernard was present at the first general chapter of the order convoked by Stephen of Cîteaux. The saint was obliged to use portions of his habit to make crosses to satisfy the zeal and ardour of the multitude who wished to take part in the Crusade. Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title of Doctor of the Church. Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Three Fountains Abbey, near the Salvian Waters in Rome, from which Pope Eugenius III was chosen. Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it, as it were, by force. Aleth’s death, in 1107, so affected Bernard that he claimed that this is when his “long path to complete conversion” began. Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Three Fountains Abbey, near the Salvian Waters in Rome, from which Pope Eugenius III was chosen. Luego, aquí escriba St. Bernard of Clairvaux o San Bernardo Dallas [se puede indicar en inglés o español] Y escoja el nombre de parroquia con la dirección 1423 San San Saba Dr. Dallas, TX. . The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the Crusade he had preached, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. "It is not fitting" he said "that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals". "On Psalm 90, 'Qui habitat'" (about 1125); "On the Canticle of Canticles". Lack of discipline and the over-confidence of the German troops, the intrigues of the Prince of Antioch and Queen Eleanor, and finally the avarice and evident treason of the Christian nobles of Syria, who prevented the capture of Damascus, appear to have been the cause of disaster. But in 1139 he advocated new errors. The King, Louis le Jeune, Queen Eleanor, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of the Abbot of Clairvaux to receive the cross. Returning to Clairvaux, Bernard occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his too-crowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. In the year 1140, we find Bernard engaged in other matters which disturbed the peace of the Church. Believe me, you will find more lessons in the woods than in books. Towards the close of the eleventh century, the schools of philosophy and theology, dominated by the passion for discussion and a spirit of independence which had introduced itself into political and religious questions, became a veritable public arena, with no other motive than that of ambition. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny, answered the Abbot of Clairvaux without wounding charity in the least, and assured him of his great admiration and sincere friendship. According to the desire of the latter, the pope went to Liège to consult with the emperor upon the best means to be taken for his return to Rome, for it was there that Lothaire was to receive the imperial crown from the hands of the pope. Bernard’s struggles with the flesh during this period may account for his early and rather consistent penchant for physical austerities. After the council the pope paid a visit to Clairvaux, where he held a general chapter of the order and was able to realize the prosperity of which Bernard was the soul. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". "De Gradibus Superbiae", his first treatise; "Homilies on the Gospel 'Missus est'" (1120); "On the Conversion of Clerics", a book addressed to the young, "De Laudibus Novae Militiae", addressed to Hughes de Payns, first Grand Master and Prior of, "De amore Dei" wherein St. Bernard shows that the manner of loving, "Book of Precepts and Dispensations" (1131), which contains answers to questions upon certain points of the, "De Gratiâ et Libero Arbitrio" in which the. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Sourced quotations by the French Theologian Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 — 1153) about god, find and learn. They are characterized by repetition of references to the Church Fathers and by the use of analogues, etymologies, alliterations, and biblical symbols, and they are imbued with resonance and poetic genius. His two successors, Celestin II and Lucius, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, Abbot of Three Fountains, and known thereafter as Eugenius III, raised to the Chair of St. Peter. He died, however, at Clairvaux in 1148. The first to die was Suger (1152), of whom the Abbot wrote to Eugenius III: "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". This book is highly recommended for those seeking a deeper spiritual life. It was not a table feast that was served to the pope and his followers, but a feast of virtues. There then arose against Bernard unjust reproaches and he was denounced even in Rome, as a monk who meddled with matters that did not concern him. The same year Bernard was again at the Council of Reims at the side of Innocent II, whose oracle he was; and then in Aquitaine where he succeeded for the time in detaching William, Count of Poitiers, from the cause of Anacletus. The French churchman St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) was a Cistercian monk and founder and abbot of the monastery of Clairvaux. Clarivaux is one of the most accessible of the mystics, addressing the transcendent with a easy and certain demeanor. From Public Domain material at Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College — www.ccel.org. The book contains a most beautiful page on the papacy, and has always been greatly esteemed by the sovereign pontiffs, many of whom used it for their ordinary reading. 1090-1153) was the dominant personality of the first half of the twelfth century. After a novitiate spent in great fervor, he made his profession in the following year. The Emperor Conrad and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa received the pilgrims' cross from the hand of Bernard, and Pope Eugenius, to encourage the enterprise, came in person to France. It was a time when Bernard was experiencing what he apprehended as the divine in a mystical and intuitive manner. The death of his contemporaries served as a warning to Bernard of his own approaching end. In the meantime the abbot had returned to France in June, and was continuing the work of peacemaking which he had commenced in 1130. Four brothers, an uncle, two cousins, an architect, and two seasoned monks under the leadership of Bernard endured extreme deprivations for well over a decade before Clairvaux was self-sufficient. He was the first Cistercian monk placed on the calendar of saints and was canonized by Alexander III, 18 January 1174. He hastened to terminate his worldly life and restore discipline in his monastery. Bernard invited William to the Mass which he celebrated in the Church of La Couldre. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. At the age of nine years, Bernard was sent to a much renowned school at Chatillon-sur-Seine, kept by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. . Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Consideration". . Bernard, the third of a family of seven children, six of whom were sons, was educated with particular care, because, while yet unborn, a devout man had foretold his great destiny. Bernard, informed of this by William of St. Thierry, wrote to Abelard who answered in an insulting manner. Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors. Bernard was scarcely nineteen years of age when his mother died. St. Bernard of Clairvaux is clearly one of the greatest preachers of all time. Abelard asked for a public discussion with Bernard; the latter showed his opponent's errors with such clearness and force of logic that he was unable to make any reply, and was obliged, after being condemned, to retire. The Cistercians honour him as only the founders of orders are honoured, because of the wonderful and widespread activity which he gave to the Order of Cîteaux. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on the 25th of June, 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux thence became inseparable. This was the occasion of the longest, and most touching of Bernard's letters. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance. Thibaud, Count of Champagne, Conrad, Emperor of Germany, and his son Henry died the same year. After writing a eulogy for the new military order of the Knights Templar, he would write about the fundamentals of Christian spiritual life, namely the contemplation and imitation of Christ, which he expressed in his sermons “The Steps of Humility” and “The Love of God.”. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. . The decision was left for the council which was held at Reims the following year (1148), and in which Eon de l'Etoile was one of the judges. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – August 21 1153), abbot of Clairvaux, was a highly influential French churchman, theologian and mystic. Towards the end of 1134, he made a second journey into Aquitaine, where William X had relapsed into schism. Lack of discipline and the over-confidence of the German troops, the intrigues of the Prince of Antioch and Queen Eleanor, and finally the avarice and evident treason of the Christian nobles of Syria, who prevented the capture of Damascus, appear to have been the cause of disaster. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. In the year 1140, we find Bernard engaged in other matters which disturbed the peace of the Church. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". Bernard passed into Germany, and the miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. At the conference held at Palermo, Bernard succeeded in convincing Roger of the rights of Innocent II and in silencing Peter of Pisa who sustained Anacletus. APA citation. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by St. Malachi, metropolitan of the Church in Ireland, and a very close friendship was formed between them. In the year 1128, Bernard assisted at the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew, Bishop of Albano. Clairvaux becoming too small for the religious who crowded there, it was necessary to send out bands to found new houses. A theologian and Doctor of the Church, he dominated Europe through his eloquence and his counselling of popes and rulers. Bernard went again to Italy, where Roger of Sicily was endeavouring to withdraw the Pisans from their allegiance to Innocent. “There are those who seek knowledge for the sake of knowledge; that is Curiosity. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by St. Malachi, metropolitan of the Church in Ireland, and a very close friendship was formed between them. BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX Sermons on the Song of Songs BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (CA. In 1115 Harding appointed him to lead a small group of monks to establish a monastery at Clairvaux, on the borders of Burgundy and Champagne. In the refectory only a few common fishes were found for the pope, and instead of wine, the juice of herbs was served for drink, says an annalist of Cîteaux. Innocent II having been banished from Rome by Anacletus took refuge in France. Abelard's treatise on the Trinity had been condemned in 1121, and he himself had thrown his book into the fire. The discussion was warm on both sides. As a Benedictine oblate, I am biased, but the writings of the Benedictine masters of spirituality always have such beauty and balance. Returning to Clairvaux, Bernard occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his too-crowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. The consequence of this declaration was that the pope condemned the assertions of Gilbert without denouncing him personally. The monks of Cluny had not seen, with satisfaction, those of Cîteaux take the first place among the religious orders for regularity and fervour. "Piety was his all," says Bossuet. "De amore Dei" wherein St. Bernard shows that the manner of loving God is to love Him without measure and gives the different degree of this love; "Book of Precepts and Dispensations" (1131), which contains answers to questions upon certain points of the Rule of St. Benedict from which the abbot can, or cannot, dispense; "De Gratiâ et Libero Arbitrio" in which the Catholic dogma of grace and free will is proved according to the principles of St. Augustine; "Book of Considerations", addressed to Pope Eugenius III; "De Officiis Episcoporum", addressed to Henry, Archbishop of Sens. About the same time he wrote his work on "Grace and Free Will". Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He wrote at this time his sermons on the "Canticle of Canticles". It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. Both his parents were exceptional models of virtue. After the council the pope paid a visit to Clairvaux, where he held a general chapter of the order and was able to realize the prosperity of which Bernard was the soul. Bernard resumed his commentary on the "Canticle of Canticles", assisted in 1139, at the Second General Lateran Council and the Tenth Oecumenical, in which the surviving adherents of the schism were definitively condemned. And behold, I am with you … Disciples flocked to it in great numbers, desirous of putting themselves under the direction of Bernard. In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to this celebrated abbey--an action which gave rise to a quarrel between the "White Monks" and the "Black Monks" which lasted twenty years. He had accredited the enterprise by miracles, but he had not guaranteed its success against the misconduct and perfidy of those who participated in it. This is exactly what it says, selections from selected works by Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) who led the 12th.c Cistercian revivalist movement to return to the simplicity of the Rule of St Benedict. This letter made a great impression upon the cardinal, and justified its author both in his eyes and before the Holy See. Bernard de Clairvaux, a Catholic mystic, speaks with a clear voice, allowing the reader to easily follow. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.CONTACT US | ADVERTISE WITH NEW ADVENT. He was plagued most of his life by impaired health, which took the form of anemia, migraine, gastritis, hypertension, and an atrophied sense of taste. Bernard then denounced him to the pope who caused a general council to be held at Sens. He wrote at this time his sermons on the "Canticle of Canticles". Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Clairvaux was a visionary, a man of apparently tremendous religious conviction. This would have died out of itself if William could have been detached from the cause of Gerard, who had usurped the See of Bordeaux and retained that of Angoulême. Times do we need to See or hear God asking us to do good. The beginning of the Cistercian religious order would love to have you join!! For those seeking a deeper spiritual life of Cluny whom he declares he loves equally as well the! 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